The ‘problem’ is the point of departure for problem-based learning (PBL).
‘The problem’ points at something not understood – on the basis of something understood.
‘The problem’ is always owned by somebody – PBL requires it to be owned by the learner.
‘The problem’ thus denotes a specific relation between the learner and certain reality aspects (the problem field) that the learner sees as problematic – in an academically or educationally interesting way.
Helping the learner to extract ‘the problem’ from the problem field is one key competence for the PBL supervisor; cf. ‘point of departure’.
In PBL, learning cannot get started before/unless learners have identified the problem that shall serve as a motor for their learning efforts.
In PBL, projects are organized as group work. ‘Projects’ mean ‘student-initiated and student-designed, empirically based investigation activities aimed at solving the problem’. The project is supported by courses but the project is what counts as most
important. In other words, the project is supported by other courses. High-quality PBL presupposes a proper quantitative balance between, and temporal sequencing of, project activities and course activities.
The problem is a driver for the learning process.
What is PBL?
An instructional method in which the problem drives the learning.
Before students learn some new knowledge, they are given a problem.
The problem is presented so that students discover that they need to learn before they can solve the problem..
“The principal idea behind PBL is that the starting point for learning should be a problem, a query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve”
How to form a problem?
Carefully selected and designed problems demand from the learner.
Acquisition of critical knowledge
Problem solving proficiency
Self-directed learning strategies,
Team participation skills
A family of approaches
PBL is one of a family of cooperative and experiential approaches to learning.
Context rich learning
The distinction is blurred, and hybrid approaches abound.
Essential components of PBL
In all variation of PBL:
The problem comes first – all content knowledge is introduced in the context of complex real-world problems (important distinction from teaching methods where the concepts are presented in a lecture format followed by ‘end-of-the chapter’ problems).
There is emphasis on self-directed learning.
PBL as a student-centered pedagogy is characterized by the following main features:
Learning is initiated by a proble
Problems are based on complex, real-world situations that do not have a single correct answer
All information needed to solve problem is not initially given
Students identify, find, and use appropriate resources
Students work in small, permanent groups
The teacher acts to facilitate the learning process rather than to provide knowledge
The teacher uses different forms of assessment such as reflective journals etc